Ethogram of the Ridden Horse Part 2: The Facial Expression Ethogram

“If a measure is to be useful as a welfare indicator it must be valid (meaningful in relation to animal welfare), reliable (produce consistent results when used by different observers/scorers) and feasible (practical for contemporaneous assessment in the field)” (Waran and Randle, 2017, p.75). The recently developed facial expression ethogram of ridden horses can aid […]

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